Driven by challenges in many markets finding and retaining distribution center labor, rising labor rates and the high cost of fulfillment for ecommerce orders, many shippers are looking at technology, including robotics, to close the gaps. SCDigest has reported extensively, for example, on the growing interest in mobile robots in distribution, where in efulfillment they are not too far away from mainstream status. At Amazon, the CartonWrap system works in parallel with another system called SmartPac, which automatically places items in envelopes for mailing with the USPS. Shuttle systems, employing another approach to “goods to picker” processes, are available from a wide number of materials handling vendors and have seen significant adoption. There is also high interest in automated case and piece picking technologies, though these generally still face some technical hurdles and are still in comparative infancy in terms of deployment at shippers, though examples for case picking especially certainly are out there. One process that has seen little automation to date is the order packing process, either moving items from a plastic tote into a shipping carton or adding...